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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27

Cerebral Microhemorrhage: A Frequent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding in Pediatric Patients after Cardiopulmonary Bypass


Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology and Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Centre, Loma Linda, CA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Paggie P C Kim
Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology and Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Schuman Pavilion, Rm. B622, 11234 Anderson St., Loma Linda, California 92354
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcis.JCIS_29_17

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Objectives: This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence and burden of cerebral microhemorrhage (CM) in patients with heart disease who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), as detected on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), a magnetic resonance (MR) sequence that is highly sensitive to hemorrhagic products. Materials and Methods: With Institutional Review Board waiver of consent, MR imaging (MRI) of a cohort of 86 consecutive pediatric patients with heart failure who underwent heart transplantation evaluation were retrospectively reviewed for CM. A nested case–control study was performed. The CPB group consisted of 23 pediatric patients with heart failure from various cardiac conditions who underwent CPB. The control group was comprised of 13 pediatric patients with similar cardiac conditions, but without CPB history. Ten patients in the CPB group were female (age: 5 days to 16 years at the time of the CPB and 6 days to 17 years at the time of the MRI). The time interval between the CPB and MRI ranged from 11 days to 4 years and 5 months. Six patients in the control group were female, age range of 2 days to 6 years old. The number of CM on SWI was counted by three radiologists (PK, EK and DK). The differences in number of CM between groups were tested for significance using Mann–Whitney U-test, α = 0.05. Using the univariate analysis of variance model, the differences in number of CM between groups were also tested with adjustment for age at MRI. Results: There are statistically significant differences in CM on SWI between the CPB group and control group with more CM were observed in the CPB group without and with adjustment for age at MRI (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Exposure of CPB is associated with increased prevalence and burden of CM among pediatric patients with heart failure.


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