Go Back
This abstract was viewed 59 times

Original research article


Traumatic Brain Injury by a Closed Head Injury Device Induces Cerebral Blood Flow Changes and Microhemorrhages.

Srinivasu KallakuriSharath BandaruNisrine ZakariaYimin ShenZhifeng KouLiying ZhangEwart Mark HaackeJohn M Cavanaugh
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Date of Submission: 14-Jul-2015, Date of Acceptance: 08-Sep-2015, Date of Web Publication: 30-Sep-2015.
Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Srinivasu Kallakuri

Department of Biomedical Engineering, 818 W Hancock, Detroit, Michigan ‑ 48201, USA.
E-mail: skallakuri@wayne.edu

Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Srinivasu Kallakuri

Department of Biomedical Engineering, 818 W Hancock, Detroit, Michigan ‑ 48201, USA.
E-mail: skallakuri@wayne.edu

DOI: 10.4103/2156-7514.166354 Facebook Twitter Google Linkedin

ABSTRACT



Objectives: Traumatic brain injury is a poly-pathology characterized by changes in the cerebral blood flow, inflammation, diffuse axonal, cellular, and vascular injuries. However, studies related to understanding the temporal changes in the cerebral blood flow following traumatic brain injury extending to sub-acute periods are limited. In addition, knowledge related to microhemorrhages, such as their detection, localization, and temporal progression, is important in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury.
Materials and Methods: Cerebral blood flow changes and microhemorrhages in male Sprague Dawley rats at 4 h, 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days were assessed following a closed head injury induced by the Marmarou impact acceleration device (2 m height, 450 g brass weight). Cerebral blood flow was measured by arterial spin labeling. Microhemorrhages were assessed by susceptibility-weighted imaging and Prussian blue histology.
Results: Traumatic brain injury rats showed reduced regional and global cerebral blood flow at 4 h and 7 days post-injury. Injured rats showed hemorrhagic lesions in the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and brainstem in susceptibility-weighted imaging. Injured rats also showed Prussian blue reaction products in both the white and gray matter regions up to 7days after the injury. These lesions were observed in various areas of the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain.
Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow and hemorrhagic lesions can persist for sub-acute periods after the initial traumatic insult in an animal model. In addition, microhemorrhages otherwise not seen by susceptibility-weighted imaging are present in diverse regions of the brain. The combination of altered cerebral blood flow and microhemorrhages can potentially be a source of secondary injury changes following traumatic brain injury and may need to be taken into consideration in the long-term care of these cases.
Keywords: Arterial Spin Labeling, Prussian Blue, Cerebral Blood Flow, Hemorrhages, Marmarou Model, Susceptibility-weighted Imaging, Traumatic Brain Injury

Cited in 7 Documents

  1. Yasushi Kawamata, Ayuka Ehara, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshiteru Seo, Kazutaka Shimoda and Shuichi Ueda (2018) Repeated mild shaking of neonates induces transient cerebral microhemorrhages and anxiety-related behavior in adult rats. Neuroscience Letters 684:29. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.06.059
  2. Qin Wang, Weijia Fan, Ying Cai, Qiaoli Wu, Lidong Mo, Zhenwu Huang and Huiling Huang (2016) Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow. Amino Acids 48(9):2169. doi: 10.1007/s00726-016-2244-x
  3. Shenandoah Robinson, Jacqueline B. Berglass, Jesse L. Denson, Justin Berkner, Christopher V. Anstine, Jesse L. Winer, Jessie R. Maxwell, Jianhua Qiu, Yirong Yang, Laurel O. Sillerud, William P. Meehan, Rebekah Mannix and Lauren L. Jantzie (2017) Microstructural and microglial changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in mice. Journal of Neuroscience Research 95(4):1025. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23848
  4. Colleen N. Bodnar, Kelly N. Roberts, Emma K. Higgins and Adam D. Bachstetter (2019) A Systematic Review of Closed Head Injury Models of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice and Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma :. doi: 10.1089/neu.2018.6127
  5. Arnold Tóth, Zoltán Berente, Péter Bogner, Bálint Környei, Bendegúz Balogh, Endre Czeiter, Krisztina Amrein, Tamás Dóczi, András Büki and Attila Schwarcz (2019) Cerebral Microbleeds Temporarily Become Less Visible or Invisible in Acute Susceptibility Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Rat Study. Journal of Neurotrauma :. doi: 10.1089/neu.2018.6004
  6. Amanda O. Esquivel, Sarah S. Sherman, Cynthia A. Bir and Stephen E. Lemos (2017) The Interaction of Intramuscular Ketorolac (Toradol) and Concussion in a Rat Model. Ann Biomed Eng 45(6):1581. doi: 10.1007/s10439-017-1809-5
  7. Eliana Baez-Jurado, Gina Guio Vega, Gjumrakch Aliev, Vadim V. Tarasov, Paula Esquinas, Valentina Echeverria and George E. Barreto (2018) Blockade of Neuroglobin Reduces Protection of Conditioned Medium from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Astrocyte Model (T98G) Under a Scratch Assay. Mol Neurobiol 55(3):2285. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0481-y

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.