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Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

Jose Gavito-HigueraCarola Birgit MullinsLuis Ramos-DuranCristina Ivette Olivas ChaconNawar HakimEnrique Palacios
Departments of Radiology and Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso, TX 79905Department of Radiology, Tulane University Health Science Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Date of Submission: 18-Mar-2016, Date of Acceptance: 16-May-2016, Date of Web Publication: 17-Jun-2016.
Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Carola Birgit Mullins

Department of Radiology, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, TX 79905, USA.
E-mail: carola.mullins@yahoo.com

Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Carola Birgit Mullins

Department of Radiology, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, TX 79905, USA.
E-mail: carola.mullins@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.4103/2156-7514.184244 Facebook Twitter Google Linkedin

ABSTRACT


Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome.
Keywords: Brain Abscess, Cryptococcoma, Fungal Cerebritis, Fungal Meningitis, Human Immune Deficiency Virus, Vascular Cerebral Fungal Infections

Cited in 8 Documents

  1. Matthew William McCarthy and Thomas J Walsh (2017) Molecular diagnosis of invasive mycoses of the central nervous system. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 17(2):129. doi: 10.1080/14737159.2017.1271716
  2. Francisco Javier Carod-Artal (2018) CNS Infections. (Chapter 7):129. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-70296-4_7
  3. Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer and Patrick Liang (2018) The first case of bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced small-vessel central nervous system vasculitis. Clin Rheumatol 37(8):2297. doi: 10.1007/s10067-018-4136-9
  4. Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska and Magdalena Dzikowiec (2018) Neuroinfections caused by fungi. Infection 46(4):443. doi: 10.1007/s15010-018-1152-2
  5. Aline Lariessy Campos Paiva, Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar, Renan Maximilian Lovato, Arthus Vilar Deolindo Zanetti, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos and José Carlos Esteves Veiga (2017) Cryptococcoma mimicking a brain tumor in an immunocompetent patient: case report of an extremely rare presentation. Sao Paulo Med. J. 136(5):492. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2017.0046210417
  6. Shivani D Rangwala, Ben A Strickland, Robert C Rennert, Kristine Ravina, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Kyle Hurth, Steven L Giannotta and Jonathan J Russin (2019) Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm of the Distal Circulation in a Patient with Mucormycosis Without Direct Skull Base Extension: Case Report. 16(3):E101. doi: 10.1093/ons/opy127
  7. Marcelo D’Alessandre Sanches, Luiza A. N. Mimura, Larissa R. C. Oliveira, Larissa L. W. Ishikawa, Hans G. Garces, Eduardo Bagagli, Alexandrina Sartori, Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa and Thais F. C. Fraga-Silva (2019) Differential Behavior of Non-albicans Candida Species in the Central Nervous System of Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Mice. Front. Microbiol. 9:. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02968
  8. Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Caroline Vieira de Souza, Letícia Pletsch, Sasha Keith Kovaliuk, Alfredo Hummelgen, Vitor Vieira Piseta, Crystal Rosiane Auersvald Haurani, Indiamara Saliane Mendes, Edna Yoshito Yamada, Ingrid Sampaio Fröehner, Rosangela Lameira Pinheiro, Adriana de Fátima Gabriel, Laura Lúcia Cogo, Lucas Nathã Almeida Lira, Mirian Su Mi Kim and Gisele M. B. Singer (2019) Diagnostic importance of eosinophilic meningitis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. J. Neurovirol. :. doi: 10.1007/s13365-019-00722-5

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