Medical imaging has changed to a great extent over the past few decades. It has been revolutionized by three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques. Despite much of modern medicine relying on 3D imaging, which can be obtained accurately, we keep on being limited by visualization of the 3D content on two-dimensional flat screens. 3D-printing of graspable models could become a feasible technique to overcome this gap. Therefore, we printed pre- and postoperative 3D-models of a complex congenital heart defect. With this example, we intend to illustrate that these models hold value in preoperative planning, postoperative evaluation of a complex procedure, communication with the patient, and education of trainees. At this moment, 3D printing only leaves a small footprint, but makes already a big impression in the domain of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Further studies including more patients and more validated applications are needed to streamline 3D printing in the clinical setting of daily practice.
Marija Vukicevic, Bobak Mosadegh, James K. Min and Stephen H. Little (2017) Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging10(2):171. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.12.001
Nicolette S. Birbara, James M. Otton and Nalini Pather (2019) 3D Modelling and Printing Technology to Produce Patient-Specific 3D Models. Heart, Lung and Circulation28(2):302. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2017.10.017
Justine Garcia, ZhiLin Yang, Rosaire Mongrain, Richard L Leask and Kevin Lachapelle (2018) 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future. BMJ STEL4(1):27. doi: 10.1136/bmjstel-2017-000234
Judy Wang, Jasamine Coles-Black, George Matalanis and Jason Chuen (2018) Innovations in cardiac surgery: techniques and applications of 3D printing. Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine2(4):179. doi: 10.2217/3dp-2018-0013
Matthias Hammon, Oliver Rompel, Hannes Seuss, Sven Dittrich, Michael Uder, Andrè Rüffer, Robert Cesnjevar, Nicole Ehret and Martin Glöckler (2017) Accuracy and Specific Value of Cardiovascular 3D-Models in Pediatric CT-Angiography. Pediatr Cardiol38(8):1540. doi: 10.1007/s00246-017-1693-7
Kevin Luke Tsai, Subhi J. Al'Aref, Alexander R. van Rosendael and Jeroen J. Bax (2018) 3D Printing Applications in Cardiovascular Medicine. 79. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803917-5.00005-5
Hyun Suk Yang (2017) Three-dimensional echocardiography in adult congenital heart disease. Korean J Intern Med32(4):577. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2016.251
Clément Batteux, Moussa A. Haidar and Damien Bonnet (2019) 3D-Printed Models for Surgical Planning in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases: A Systematic Review. Front. Pediatr.7:. doi: 10.3389/fped.2019.00023
Michelle L. Smith and James F.X. Jones (2018) Dual-extrusion 3D printing of anatomical models for education. American Association of Anatomists11(1):65. doi: 10.1002/ase.1730
Mariya Kuk, Dimitris Mitsouras, Karin E. Dill, Frank J. Rybicki and Girish Dwivedi (2017) 3D Printing from Cardiac Computed Tomography for Procedural Planning. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep10(7):. doi: 10.1007/s12410-017-9420-6
Sotiria C. Apostolopoulou, Athanassios Manginas, Nikolaos L. Kelekis and Michel Noutsias (2019) Cardiovascular imaging approach in pre and postoperative tetralogy of Fallot. BMC Cardiovasc Disord19(1):. doi: 10.1186/s12872-018-0996-9
Alessandra C. Gasior, Carlos Reck, Victoria Lane, Richard J. Wood, Jeremy Patterson, Robert Strouse, Simon Lin, Jennifer Cooper, D. Gregory Bates and Marc A. Levitt (2018) Transcending Dimensions: a Comparative Analysis of Cloaca Imaging in Advancing the Surgeon’s Understanding of Complex Anatomy. J Digit Imaging:. doi: 10.1007/s10278-018-0139-y
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.