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Original research article


Lingual Foramina and Canals of the Mandible Anatomic Variations in a Lebanese Population

Georges Aoun1Ibrahim Nasseh1Sayde Sokhn1Mohamad Rifai2
1Departments of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Dentomaxillofacial Radiology and Imaging and, 2Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
Date of Submission: 18-Feb-2017, Date of Acceptance: 16-Mar-2017, Date of Web Publication: 25-Apr-2017.
Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Georges Aoun

Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
E-mail: aoungeorges@yahoo.com

Corresponding Author:
Corresponding Author

Georges Aoun

Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
E-mail: aoungeorges@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.4103/jcis.JCIS_15_17 Facebook Twitter Google Linkedin

ABSTRACT


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF) and canals and their anatomic variations using cone‑beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females). We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a) The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b) the length of the lingual canals (LCs). The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Shapiro–Wilk normality test, t‑test, Chi‑square, and Fisher’s exact tests. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In our sample, the LF and canals were present in 93.33% of the CBCT analyzed, and the majority (76.64%) was located above the genial tubercles. The distance from the foramen of the superior and the inferior LCs to the alveolar crest was 16.24 ± 2.82 mm and 25.49 ± 2.43 mm, respectively. The distance from the foramen of the superior canal to the inferior border of the mandible was 14 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the superior canal was 5.81 ± 1.6 mm and 4.25 ± 1.2 mm for the inferior one. There were no gender‑related differences in the anatomic characteristics of the LF and canals except for the distance measured from the superior canal foramina to the alveolar crest where the measurement was significantly greater in males compared to females. Neither the number of canals nor the positions of the foramina were different between males and females. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample of Lebanese adults, there was substantial variability in the LF and canals anatomy and location.
Keywords: Cone‑beam computed tomography, Lebanese, Lingual Foramen, Population

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