Aim: To determine the accuracy of transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) in the evaluation of cerebral arterial system in patients with ischemic stroke attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Objectives: (1) To describe the topographical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions in the cerebral circulation in patients presenting with ischemic stroke from the Indian subcontinent and (2) to determine the accuracy of TCCS for detection and quantification of intracranial stenoses in various segments of the intracerebral arterial system in comparison with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Materials and Methods: The demographic profile and risk factors of consecutive patients who presented to neurology outpatient department with cerebral ischemia and scheduled for MRA were determined. These patients had undergone neck Doppler, TCCS, and MRA. The agreement between the MRA and TCCS was assessed using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of TCCS as compared to MRA were calculated. Results: Ninety patients were included in the final analysis. Intracranial atherosclerosis was found in 35.6% of cases. The agreement between TCCS and MRA in detecting lesions for the different arterial segments in the intracranial circulation was 0.83 for anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 0.66 for M1 segment of middle cerebral artery (MCA), 0.45 for M2 segment of MCA, 0.86 for terminal internal carotid artery (TICA), 0.46 for posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and 0.81 for vertebral artery (VA). The sensitivity for the detection of hemodynamically significant arterial lesions in different vascular segments was 100%, 70%, 33.3%, 90.9%, 33.3%, and 72.7% for ACA, M1, M2, TICA, PCA, and VA, respectively. Conclusion: Intracranial atherosclerosis was found to be the predominant distribution of cerebral atherosclerosis. TCCS is a safe method for evaluation of proximal basal cerebral arteries in the intracranial circulation with relatively better sensitivity in the anterior circulation.
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